We’ve previously seen
the basic implementation and motivation for `scalaz.Leibniz`

.
But there’s still quite a bit more to this traditionally esoteric
member of the Scalaz collection of well-typed stuff.

The word “witness” implies that `Leibniz`

is a passive bystander in
your function; sitting back and telling you that some type is equal to
another type, otherwise content to let the *real* code do the real
work. The fact that `Leibniz`

lifts into functions (which are a
member of the *everything* set, you’ll agree) might reinforce the
notion that `Leibniz`

is spooky action at a distance.

But one of the nice things about `Leibniz`

is that there’s really no
cheating: the value with its shiny new type is dependent on the
`Leibniz`

actually existing, and its `subst`

, however much a glorified
identity function it might be, completing successfully.

To see this in action, let’s check in with the bastion of not evaluating stuff, Haskell.

```
{-# LANGUAGE RankNTypes, PolyKinds #-}
module Leib
( Leib()
, subst
, lift
, symm
, compose
) where
import Data.Functor
data Leib a b = Leib {
subst :: forall f. f a -> f b
}
refl :: Leib a a
refl = Leib id
lift :: Leib a b -> Leib (f a) (f b)
lift ab = runOn . subst ab . On $ refl
newtype On c f a b = On {
runOn :: c (f a) (f b)
}
symm :: Leib a b -> Leib b a
symm ab = runDual . subst ab . Dual $ refl
newtype Dual c a b = Dual {
runDual :: c b a
}
compose :: Leib b c -> Leib a b -> Leib a c
compose = subst
```

We use newtypes in place of type lambdas, and a value instead of a method, but the implementation is otherwise identical.

OK. Let’s try to make a fake `Leib`

.

```
badForce :: Leib a b
badForce = Leib $ \_ -> error "sorry for fibbing"
```

The following code will signal an error only if forcing the *head
cons* of the `subst`

ed list signals such an error. We never give
Haskell the chance to force anything else.

```
λ> subst (badForce :: Leib Int String) [42] `seq` 33
*** Exception: sorry for fibbing
```

Oh well, let’s try to bury it behind combinators.

```
λ> subst (symm . symm $ badForce :: Leib Int String) [42] `seq` 33
*** Exception: sorry for fibbing
λ> subst (compose refl $ badForce :: Leib Int String) [42] `seq` 33
*** Exception: sorry for fibbing
```

Hmm. We have two properties:

- The
`id`

from`refl`

? The type-substituted data actually goes through that function. The same goes for the`subst`

method in Scala. - When using
`Leibniz`

combinators, the strictness forms a chain to all underlying`Leibniz`

evidence. If there are any missing values, the transform will also fail.

`Leibniz`

Let’s try a variant on `Leib`

.

```
sealed abstract class LeibF[G[_], H[_]] {
def subst[F[_[_]]](fa: F[G]): F[H]
}
```

This reads “`LeibF[G, H]`

can replace `G`

with `H`

in **any** type
function”. But, whereas the
kind
of the types that Leib discusses is `*`

, for `LeibF`

it’s `*->*`

. So,
`LeibF[List, List]`

exhibits that the *type constructors* `List`

and
`List`

are equal.

```
implicit def refl[G[_]]: LeibF[G, G] = new LeibF[G, G] {
override def subst[F[_[_]]](fa: F[G]): F[G] = fa
}
```

Interestingly, except for the kinds of type parameters, these
definitions are exactly the same as for `Leib`

. Does that hold for
lift?

```
def lift[F[_[_], _], A[_] , B[_]](ab: LeibF[A, B]): LeibF[F[A, ?], F[B, ?]] =
ab.subst[Lambda[x[_] => LeibF[F[A, ?], F[x, ?]]]](LeibF.refl[F[A, ?]])
```

Despite that we are positively buried in type lambdas (yet moderated by Kind Projector) now, absolutely!

As an exercise, adapt your `symm`

and `compose`

methods from the last
part for `LeibF`

, by only changing type parameters and switching any
`refl`

references.

```
def symm[A[_], B[_]](ab: LeibF[A, B]): LeibF[B, A]
def compose[A[_], B[_], C[_]](ab: LeibF[A, B], bc: LeibF[B, C]): LeibF[A, C]
```

You can write a `Leibniz`

and associated combinators for types of
*any* kind; the principles and implementation techniques outlined
above for types of kind `*->*`

apply to all kinds.

`PolyKinds`

?You have to define a new `Leib`

variant and set of combinators for
each kind you wish to support. There is no need to do this in
Haskell, though.

```
λ> :k Leib []
Leib [] :: (* -> *) -> *
λ> :t refl :: Leib [] []
refl :: Leib [] [] :: Leib [] []
λ> :t lift (refl :: Leib [] [])
lift (refl :: Leib [] []) :: Leib (f []) (f [])
λ> :t compose (refl :: Leib [] [])
compose (refl :: Leib [] []) :: Leib a [] -> Leib a []
```

In Haskell, we can take advantage of the fact that the actual
implementations are kind-agnostic, by having those definitions be
applicable to all kinds via
the `PolyKinds`

language extension,
mentioned at the top of the Haskell code above. No such luck in
Scala.

In a post from a couple months ago,
Kenji Yoshida outlines an interesting way to simulate the missing
type-evidence features of Scala’s GADT support with `Leibniz`

. This
works in Haskell, too, in case you are comfortable with turning on
`RankNTypes`

but not
`GADTs`

somehow.

Let’s examine Kenji’s GADT.

```
sealed abstract class Foo[A, B]
final case class X[A]() extends Foo[A, A]
final case class Y[A, B](a: A, b: B) extends Foo[A, B]
```

For completeness, let’s also see the Haskell version, including the function that demands so much hoop-jumping in Scala, but just works in Haskell.

```
{-# LANGUAGE GADTs #-}
module FooXY where
data Foo a b where
X :: Foo a a
Y :: a -> b -> Foo a b
hoge :: Foo a b -> f a c -> f b c
hoge X bar = bar
```

Note that the Haskell type system understands that when `hoge`

’s first
argument’s data constructor is `X`

, the type variables `a`

and `b`

must be the same type, and therefore by implication the argument of
type `f a c`

must also be of type `f b c`

. This is what we’re trying
to get Scala to understand.

```
def hoge1[F[_, _], A, B, C](foo: Foo[A, B], bar: F[A, C]): F[B, C] =
foo match {
case X() => bar
}
```

This transliteration of the above Haskell `hoge`

function fails to
compile, as Kenji notes, with the following:

```
…/LeibnizArticle.scala:39: type mismatch;
found : bar.type (with underlying type F[A,C])
required: F[B,C]
case X() => bar
^
```

`cata`

methodKenji introduces a `cata`

method on `Foo`

to constrain use of the
`Leibniz.force`

hack, while still providing external code with usable
`Leibniz`

evidence that can be lifted to implement `hoge`

. However,
by implementing the method in a slightly different way, we can use
`refl`

instead.

```
sealed abstract class Foo[A, B] {
def cata[Z](x: (A Leib B) => Z, y: (A, B) => Z): Z
}
final case class X[A]() extends Foo[A, A] {
def cata[Z](x: (A Leib A) => Z, y: (A, A) => Z) =
x(Leib.refl)
}
final case class Y[A, B](a: A, b: B) extends Foo[A, B] {
def cata[Z](x: (A Leib B) => Z, y: (A, B) => Z) =
y(a, b)
}
```

Now we can replace the pattern match (and all other such pattern
matches) with an equivalent `cata`

invocation.

```
def hoge2[F[_, _], A, B, C](foo: Foo[A, B], bar: F[A, C]): F[B, C] =
foo.cata(x => x.subst[F[?, C]](bar),
(_, _) => sys error "nonexhaustive")
```

So why can we get away with `Leib.refl`

, whereas the function version
Kenji presents cannot? Compare the `cata`

signature in `Foo`

versus
`X`

:

```
def cata[Z](x: (A Leib B) => Z, y: (A, B) => Z): Z
def cata[Z](x: (A Leib A) => Z, y: (A, A) => Z): Z
```

We supplied `A`

for both the `A`

and `B`

type parameters in our
`extends`

clause, so that substitution also applies in all methods
from `Foo`

that we’re implementing, including `cata`

. At that point
it’s obvious to the compiler that `refl`

implements the requested
`Leib`

.

Incidentally, a similar style of substitution underlies the definition
of `refl`

.

`Leib`

memberWhat if we don’t want to write or maintain an overriding-style `cata`

?
After all, that’s an n² commitment. Instead, we can incorporate a
`Leib`

value in the GADT. First, let’s see what the equivalent
Haskell is, without the `GADTs`

extension:

```
data Foo a b = X (Leib a b) | Y a b
hoge :: Foo a b -> f a c -> f b c
hoge (X leib) bar = runDual . subst leib . Dual $ bar
```

We needed `RankNTypes`

to implement `Leib`

, of course, but perhaps
that’s acceptable. It’s useful in
Ermine, which supports rank-N
types but not GADTs as of this writing.

The above is simple enough to port to Scala, though.

```
sealed abstract class Foo[A, B]
final case class X[A, B](leib: Leib[A, B]) extends Foo[A, B]
final case class Y[A, B](a: A, b: B) extends Foo[A, B]
def hoge3[F[_, _], A, B, C](foo: Foo[A, B], bar: F[A, C]): F[B, C] =
foo match {
case X(leib) => leib.subst[F[?, C]](bar)
}
```

It feels a little weird that `X`

now must retain `Foo`

’s
type-system-level separation of the two type parameters. But this
style may more naturally integrate in your ADTs, and it is much closer
to the original non-working `hoge1`

implementation.

It also feels a little weird that you have to waste a slot carting
around this evidence of type equality. As demonstrated in section
“It’s really there” above, though, *it matters that the instance
exists*.

You can play games with this definition to make it easier to supply
the wholly mechanical `leib`

argument to `X`

, e.g. adding it as an
`implicit val`

in the second parameter list so it can be imported and
implicitly supplied on `X`

construction. The basic technique is
exactly the same as above, though.

`Leibniz`

masteryThis time we talked about

- Why it matters that
`subst`

always executes to use a type equality, - the Haskell implementation,
- higher-kinded type equalities and their
`Leibniz`

es, - simulating GADTs with
`Leibniz`

members of data constructors.

*This article was tested with Scala 2.11.2,
Kind Projector 0.5.2, and
GHC 7.8.3.*