There are at least three types of strings

Newtype mechanisms are a great way to introduce wrapper-free, global distinctions of “different” instances of the same type. But we can do that on a local level, too, by using type parameters.

Consider these two signatures.

def mungeIDs(uids: List[String], gids: List[String],
             oids: List[String]): Magic[String, String, String]

def mungeIDsSafely[UID <: String, GID <: String, OID <: String]
            (uids: List[UID], gids: List[GID],
             oids: List[OID]): Magic[UID, GID, OID] 

The second function is a strictly more general interface; the first, concrete signature can be implemented by calling the second function, passing [String, String, String] as the type arguments. There is no need to even have the first signature; anywhere in your program where you pass three List[String]s as arguments to mungeIDsSafely, the proper type arguments will be inferred.

Yet, assuming you don’t wish mungeIDs to be oracular (i.e. a source of UIDs, GIDs, and OIDs), the second signature is probably much more reliable, because type parameters are quite as mysterious as the opaque abstract type members of the newtype mechanism.

  1. mungeIDsSafely can’t invent new IDs, not even with null.
  2. It can’t combine them to produce new IDs.
  3. It can treat the three list arguments as List[String]. However, it cannot convert any String back into an ID; any UIDs, GIDs, or OIDs that appear in the result Magic[UID, GID, OID] must have come from one of the argument lists, directly. (That’s not to say that mungeIDsSafely can’t use the string-nature to make that decision; for example, it could always choose the smallest-as-string UID to put into the resulting Magic. But, that UID is still enforced to be a proper element of the uids argument, and cannot be gotten from anywhere else.
  4. Perhaps most importantly, it cannot mix up UIDs, GIDs, and OIDs. Even though, “really”, they’re all strings!

It is entirely irrelevant that you cannot subclass String in Scala, Java, or whatever. There are more types than classes.

Given the advantages, it’s very unfortunate that the signature of mungeIDsSafely is so much noisier than that of mungeIDs. At least you have the small consolation of eliminating more useless unit tests.

This is a good first approximation at moving away from the dangers of concreteness in Scala, and has the advantage of working in Java, too (sort of; the null prohibition is sadly relaxed).

Non-supertype constraints

In Scala, you can also use implicits to devise arbitrary constraints, similar to typeclasses in Haskell, and sign your functions using implicits instead, for much finer-grained control, improved safety, and types-as-documentation.

// a typeclass for "IDish types" (imagine instances)
sealed trait IDish[A]

def mungeIDsTCey[UID: IDish, GID: IDish, OID: IDish]
            (uids: List[UID], gids: List[GID],
             oids: List[OID]): Magic[UID, GID, OID] 

Though all three types have the same constraint, IDish, they are still distinct types. And now, the coupling with String is broken; as the program author, you get to decide whether you want that or not.

Pitfalls avoided for you

Luckily, Java doesn’t make the mistake of “reified generics”. If it did, you could ask whether UID = GID = OID = String, and all your safety guarantees would be gone. Forcing all generics to be reified does not grant you any new expressive power; all it does is permanently close off large swaths of the spectrum of mystery to you, forbidding you from using the full scope of the design space to improve the reliability of your well-typed programs.

The same goes for claiming that null ought to be a default member of every type, even the abstract ones that ought to be a little more mysterious; it’s easy to add new capabilities (e.g. Scala’s >: Null constraint, if you really must use null), but taking them away is much, much harder.

Furthering this spirit of making good programs easier to write and bad programs harder to write, a useful area of research in Scala might be making signatures such as that of mungeIDsSafely nicer, or signatures such as that of mungeIDs uglier.


Unless otherwise noted, all content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Back to blog
comments powered by Disqus