A comprehensive introduction to Cats-mtl

by Luka Jacobowitz on Oct 06, 2018


MTL is a library for composing monad transformers and making it easier to work with nested monad transformer stacks. It originates from the land of Haskell, but has made it into Scala a long time ago. For the longest time however, it was barely usable, because of a bunch of different Scala quirks coming together. With all this, I feel many have the impression that mtl is something scary, abstract or too complicated. In this blog post, I’ll try my best to disprove this notion and demonstrate the simplicity and elegance of Cats-mtl. After reading this, I hope you’ll agree that one should prefer mtl whenever one needs to compose more than one monad transformer nested inside of each other.

What is mtl?

Mtl is an acronym and stands for Monad Transformer Library. Its main purpose it make it easier to work with nested monad transformers. It achieves this by encoding the effects of most common monad transformers as type classes. To understand what this means we’ll first have to look at some of the common monad transformers.

I’ll go over some of the lesser known transformers StateT and ReaderT next, so feel free to skip the next section if you already know about StateT and ReaderT.


ReaderT allows us to read from an environment and create other values that depend on the environment. This can be especially useful for e.g. reading from some external configuration. Some like to describe this as the functional programming equivalent of dependency injection.

As an example, let’s imagine we want to make a call to a service, but to make that call we need to pass some configuration.

First, some imports and some declarations:

import cats._
import cats.data._
import cats.implicits._
import cats.effect._

// These are just String for simplicity
type Config = String
type Result = String

Now let’s say we have these two functions for the service we want to call and the configuration we want to read from.

def getConfig: IO[Config] = ???
// getConfig: cats.effect.IO[Config]

def serviceCall(c: Config): IO[Result] = ???
// serviceCall: (c: Config)cats.effect.IO[Result]

The easiest thing would be to just pass down the configuration from the very top of your application. However that can be pretty tedious, so what we do instead is use ReaderT. ReaderT gives us the ask function, which gives us access to a read-only environment value of type E:

def ask[F[_]: Applicative, E]: ReaderT[F, E, E]

We can then use flatMap, map or for-comprehensions to actually use that value and do things with it:

def readerProgram: ReaderT[IO, Config, Result] = for {
  config <- ReaderT.ask[IO, Config]
  result <- ReaderT.liftF(serviceCall(config))
} yield result
// readerProgram: cats.data.ReaderT[cats.effect.IO,Config,Result]

Now that we have a value of ReaderT that gives us back our result, the next step is to actually “inject” the dependency. For this purpose, ReaderT[F, E, A] gives us a run function that expects us to give it a value of E and will then return an F[A], so in our case an IO of Result:

def run(e: E): F[A]

Combined with our getConfig function we can now write the entry point to our program:

def main: IO[Result] = getConfig.flatMap(readerProgram.run)
// main: cats.effect.IO[Result]

And that is how we can do functional dependency injection in Scala. However, I believe this pattern isn’t used very often, because it forces you to wrap all of your steps in ReaderT. If you continue reading on, we’ll go through how this problem can be mitigated using MTL.


Like ReaderT, StateT also allows us to read from an environment. However, unlike ReaderT, it also allows us to write to that environment, making it capable of holding state, hence the name. With StateT over IO, we can deliberately create programs that can access the outside world and also maintain mutable state. This is very powerful and, when used without care, can give rise to similar problems as can be found in imperative programs that abuse global mutable state and unlimited side effects. Use StateT with care however, and it can be a really great tool for parts of your application that require some notion of mutable state.

An example use case that comes up very often is the ability to send some requests to an external services and after each of those requests, use the resulting value to modify an environment with which you’ll create the next request. This environment could be used for something simple like a cache, or something more complex like dynamically changing the parameters of each request, depening on what state the environment currently holds. Let’s look at an abstract example, that showcases this ability.

First, we’ll define a function that calls our external service which will take the environment into account.

// Again we use String here for simplicity, in real code this would be something else
type Env = String
type Request = String
type Response = String

def initialEnv: Env = ???

def request(r: Request, env: Env): IO[Response] = ???

Next, we’ll also need a function that given a response and an old environment will return a new updated environment.

def updateEnv(r: Response, env: Env): Env = ???

// We also need some fake requests
def req1: Request = ???
def req2: Request = ???
def req3: Request = ???
def req4: Request = ???

Now we can get started with StateT. To do so, we’ll create a new request function that will make the request with the current environment and update it after we’ve received the response:

def requestWithState(r: Request): StateT[IO, Env, Response] = for {
  env <- StateT.get[IO, Env]
  resp <- StateT.liftF(request(r, env))
  _ <- StateT.modify[IO, Env](updateEnv(resp, _))
} yield resp

This demonstrates the power of StateT. We can get the current state by using StateT.get (which returns a StateT[IO, Env, Env] similar to ReaderT.ask) and we can also modify it using StateT.modify (which takes a function Env => Env and returns a StateT[IO, Env, Unit]).

Now, if we wanted to make those different requests, we could just reuse that requestWithState function N number of times:

def stateProgram: StateT[IO, Env, Response] = for {
  resp1 <- requestWithState(req1)
  resp2 <- requestWithState(req2)
  resp3 <- requestWithState(req3)
  resp4 <- requestWithState(req4)
} yield resp4

And now we have a fully fledged program exactly as we wanted. But what can we actually do with the StateT value? To run the full program, we need an IO. Of course, just like ReaderT, we can turn StateT into IO by using the run method and supplying an initial value for our environment. Let’s try that out!

def main: IO[(Env, Response)] = stateProgram.run(initialEnv)
// main: cats.effect.IO[(Env, Response)]

And that gives us a fully working stateful application. Cool. Next, we’ll look at how we can combine different transformers and what monad transformers actually represent.

Monad Transformers encode some notion of effect

EitherT encodes the effect of short-circuiting errors. ReaderT encodes the effect of reading a value from the environment. StateT encodes the effect of pure local mutable state.

All of these monad transformers encode their effects as data structures, but there’s another way to achieve the same result: Type classes!

For example we’ve looked extensively at the ReaderT.ask function, what would it look like if we used a type class here instead? Well, Cats-mtl has an answer and it’s called ApplicativeAsk. You can think of it as ReaderT encoded as a type class:

trait ApplicativeAsk[F[_], E] {
  val applicative: Applicative[F]

  def ask: F[E]

At it’s core ApplicativeAsk just encodes the fact that we can ask for a value from the environment, exactly like ReaderT does. Exactly like ReaderT, it also includes another type parameter E, that represents that environment.

If you’re wondering why ApplicativeAsk has an Applicative field instead of just extending from Applicative, that is to avoid implicit ambiguities that arise from having multiple subclasses of a given type (here Applicative) in scope implicitly. So in this case we favor composition over inheritance as otherwise, we could not e.g. use Monad together with ApplicativeAsk. You can read more about this issue in this excellent blog post by Adelbert Chang.

Effect type classes

ApplicativeAsk is an example for what is at the core of Cats-mtl. Cats-mtl provides type classes for most common effects which let you choose what kind of effects you need without committing to a specific monad transformer stack.

Ideally, you’d write all your code using only an abstract type constructor F[_] with different type class constraints and then at the end run that code with a specific data type that is able to fulfill those constraints.

So without further ado, let’s try to convert our Reader program from earlier into mtl-style. First, I’ll include the original program again:

def getConfig: IO[Config] = ???
// getConfig: cats.effect.IO[Config]

def serviceCall(c: Config): IO[Result] = ???
// serviceCall: (c: Config)cats.effect.IO[Result]

def readerProgram: ReaderT[IO, Config, Result] = for {
  config <- ReaderT.ask[IO, Config]
  result <- ReaderT.liftF(serviceCall(config))
} yield result
// readerProgram: cats.data.ReaderT[cats.effect.IO,Config,Result]

def main: IO[Result] = getConfig.flatMap(readerProgram.run)
// main: cats.effect.IO[Result]

Now we should just replace that ReaderT with an F and add an ApplicativeAsk[F, Config] constraint, right? We have one small problem though, how can we lift our serviceCall which is an IO value, into our abstract F context? Fortunately cats-effect already defines a typeclass designed to help us out here called LiftIO. It defines a single function liftIO that does exactly what you’d expect:

@typeclass trait LiftIO[F[_]] {
  def liftIO[A](io: IO[A]): F[A]

If there’s an instance for LiftIO[F] we can lift any IO[A] into an F[A]. Furthermore IO defines a method to which makes use of this type class to provide some nicer looking syntax.

With this in mind, we can now define our readerProgram fully using MTL:

import cats.mtl._
import cats.mtl.instances.all._

def readerProgram[F[_]: Monad: LiftIO](implicit A: ApplicativeAsk[F, Config]): F[Result] = for {
  config <- A.ask
  result <- serviceCall(config).to[F]
} yield result

We replaced our call to ReaderT.ask with a call to ask provided by ApplicativeAsk and instead of using ReaderT.liftF to lift an IO into ReaderT, we can simply use the to function on IO, pretty neat if you ask me.

Now to run it, all we need to do is specify the target F to run in, in our case ReaderT[IO, Config, Result] fits perfectly:

val materializedProgram = readerProgram[ReaderT[IO, Config, ?]]

def main: IO[Result] = getConfig.flatMap(materializedProgram.run)

This process of turning a program defined by an abstract type constructor with additional type class constraints into an actual concrete data type is sometimes called interpreting or materializing a program.

Another thing we can do is define a type alias for ApplicativeAsk[F, Config] so that we can more easily use it with the context bound syntax:

type ApplicativeConfig[F[_]] = ApplicativeAsk[F, Config]

def readerProgram[F[_]: Monad: LiftIO: ApplicativeConfig]: F[Result] = ???

So far so good, but this doesn’t seem to be any better than what we had before. I’ve teased at the beginning that MTL really shines once you use more than one monad transformer. So let’s say our program now also needs to be able to handle errors (which I think is a very reasonable requirement).

To do so, we’ll use MonadError, which can be found in cats-core instead of mtl, but in its essence, it encodes the short circuting effect that’s shared with EitherT.

To keep things simple for now, we want to raise an error if the configuration we got was invalid somehow. For this purpose we’ll have this simple function that will simply return if a Config is valid or not:

def validConfig(c: Config): Boolean = ???

Then we’ll also want to define an error ADT for our app:

sealed trait AppError
case object InvalidConfig extends AppError

Now we can go and extend our program from earlier. We’ll add a MonadError[F, AppError] type alias, MonadAppError and then add a constraint for it in our program.

type MonadAppError[F[_]] = MonadError[F, AppError]

def program[F[_]: MonadAppError: ApplicativeConfig: LiftIO]: F[Result] = ???

Now we want so ensure somehow that our config is valid and raise an InvalidConfig error if it’s not. To do so, we’ll simply use the ensure function provided by MonadError. It looks like this:

def ensure(error: => E)(predicate: A => Boolean): F[A]

And it fills our need exactly. It will raise the passed error, if the predicate function returns false. Let’s go and try it out:

def program[F[_]: MonadAppError: ApplicativeConfig: LiftIO]: F[Result] = for {
  config <- ApplicativeAsk[F, Config].ask
  result <- serviceCall(config).to[F]
} yield result
// program: [F[_]](implicit evidence$1: MonadAppError[F], implicit evidence$2: ApplicativeConfig[F], implicit evidence$3: cats.effect.LiftIO[F])F[Result]

Pretty simple, now let’s materialize it! To do so, we’ll use a monad stack of ReaderT, EitherT and IO. Unwrapped it should look like this IO[Either[AppError, Reader[Config, A]]].

We’ll create some type aliases to get a better overview:

type EitherApp[A] = EitherT[IO, AppError, A]
type Stack[A] = ReaderT[EitherApp, Config, A]

val materializedProgram: Stack[Result] = program[Stack]

def main: IO[Either[AppError, Result]] =

This is the magic of mtl, it is able to give you type class instances for every single monad transformer in the stack. This means that when you stack EitherT, ReaderT and StateT, you’ll be able to get instances for MonadError, ApplicativeAsk and MonadState, which is really useful!

If you’re wondering how this works, well let’s just have a quick look at how the MonadError instance for ReaderT

def monadErrorForReaderT[F[_], E, R](implicit F: MonadError[F, E]): MonadError[ReaderT[F, R, ?], E] =
  new MonadError[ReaderT[F, R, ?], E] {
    def raiseError[A](e: E): ReaderT[F, R, A] =

    def handleErrorWith[A](fa: ReaderT[F, R, A])(f: E => ReaderT[F, R, A]): ReaderT[F, R, A] =
      ReaderT.ask[F, R].flatMap { r => 
        ReaderT.liftF(fa.run(r).handleErrorWith(e => f(e).run(r)))

To get an instance of MonadError for ReaderT[F, R, ?], we need to have a MonadError for F. Then we can easily use that underlying instance to handle and raise the errors instead. Again, this means that if some part of transformer stack is capable of raising and handling errors, now your whole stack is. So if it includes EitherT somewhere, you can “lift” that capability.

There are different strategies for lifting these capabilities throughout your monad stack, but they’d be out of scope for this article.

What this means for us, is that we never have to think about lifting individual monads through transformer stacks. The implicit search used by the type class mechanic takes care of it. Pretty neat, I think. Now contrast this lack of lifting, with the same program written without mtl:

type EitherApp[A] = EitherT[IO, AppError, A]
// defined type alias EitherApp

type Stack[A] = ReaderT[EitherApp, Config, A]
// defined type alias Stack

def program: Stack[Result] = for {
  config <- ReaderT.ask[EitherApp, Config]
  _ <- if (validConfig(config)) ().pure[Stack]
       else ReaderT.liftF[EitherApp, Config, Unit](EitherT.leftT(InvalidConfig))
  result <- ReaderT.liftF(EitherT.liftF[IO, AppError, Result](serviceCall(config)))
} yield result
// program: Stack[Result]

It’s the same program, but now we have to add type annotations and liftFs everywhere. If you try to take away one of those type annotations the program will fail to compile, so this is the minimum amount of boilerplate you need.

Adding State

For the next step, let’s imagine we want to send multiple requests and after each, use information we retrieved from the response for the next request, similar to how we did earlier in the StateT example.

Instead of using StateT, we’ll use the MonadState type class:

trait MonadState[F[_], S] {
  val monad: Monad[F]

  def get: F[S]

  def set(s: S): F[Unit]

  def modify(f: S => S): F[Unit] = get.flatMap(s => set(f(s)))

Let’s imagine we have a list of requests, where we want to update the environment after each request, and we also want to use the environment to create the next request. At the very end we want to return the list of all the responses we got:

type Result = List[Response]

def updateEnv(r: Response, env: Env): Env = ???

def requests: List[Request] = ???

def newServiceCall(c: Config, req: Request, e: Env): IO[Response] = ???

So far, so good, next we’ll use MonadState to create a new function that will wrap newServiceCall with the addition of modifying the environment using updateEnv. To do so, we’ll create a new type alias for MonadState[F, Env]:

type MonadStateEnv[F[_]] = MonadState[F, Env]
// defined type alias MonadStateEnv

def requestWithState[F[_]: Monad: MonadStateEnv: LiftIO](c: Config, req: Request): F[Response] = for {
  env <- MonadState[F, Env].get
  response <- newServiceCall(c, req, env).to[F]
  _ <- MonadState[F, Env].modify(updateEnv(response, _))
} yield response
// requestWithState: [F[_]](c: Config, req: Request)(implicit evidence$1: cats.Monad[F], implicit evidence$2: MonadStateEnv[F], implicit evidence$3: cats.effect.LiftIO[F])F[Response]

Here, we use get to retrieve the current state of the environment, then we use newServiceCall and lift it into F and use the response to modify the environment with updateEnv.

Now, we can use requestWithState on our list of requests and embed this new part into our program. The best way to do that, is of course traverse, as we want to go from a List[Request] and a function Request => F[Response] to an F[List[Response]]. So without further ado, this is our final program, using all three different mtl type classes we learned about in this article:

def program[F[_]: MonadAppError: MonadStateEnv: ApplicativeConfig: LiftIO]: F[Result] = for {
  config <- ApplicativeAsk[F, Config].ask
  responses <- requests.traverse(req => requestWithState[F](config, req))
} yield responses
// program: [F[_]](implicit evidence$1: MonadAppError[F], implicit evidence$2: MonadStateEnv[F], implicit evidence$3: ApplicativeConfig[F], implicit evidence$4: cats.effect.LiftIO[F])F[Result]

And that is it! Of course, we still have to run it, so let’s materialize our F into an appropriate data type. We’ll be using a stack of EitherT, StateT and ReaderT, with IO as our base to satisfy LiftIO:

def materializedProgram = program[StateT[EitherT[ReaderT[IO, Config, ?], AppError, ?], Env, ?]]

And now we have a fully applied transformer stack.

The only thing left is to turn that stack back into an IO by running the individual layers.

def main: IO[Either[AppError, (Env, Result)]] = 
  getConfig.flatMap(conf => 
    materializedProgram.run(initialEnv) //Run the StateT layer
      .value //Run the EitherT layer
      .run(conf) //Run the ReaderT layer

If we were to get that same value using just transformers and no mtl, the amount of boilerplate would be excruciating. We would need multiple liftFs for every monad transformer and dozens of type annotations, leaving the actual code hidden under layers and layers of boilerplate.

With Cats-mtl, dealing with different effects is simple and free of boilerplate. We can describe our application as functions dealing with an abstract context F[_] that must be able to provide certain effect constraints. These constraints are provided by the different MTL type classes in Cats-mtl and their instances can be lifted up to the highest layer with Cats-mtl’s underlying machinery.

In summary Cats-mtl provides two things: MTL type classes representing effects and a way to lift instances of these classes through transformer stacks. If you’d like to learn more about Cats-mtl, check out its new website!

Other mtl class instances

Now I said that ApplicativeAsk is the type class encoding of ReaderT, but it’s by no means the only one that can form an ApplicativeAsk instance. Monad transformer stacks are known to be quite unperformant, especially so on the JVM, so there are some alternate solutions. For example, one could use the Arrows library, which provides effect types with an input type in addition to its output type Arrow[A, B]. If you squint a bit, it’s practically equivalent to a function A => IO[B] or ReaderT[IO, A, B]. At the same time, however, it can be substantially more performant.

Other examples include using something like cats-effectRef for MonadState (a working instance can be found here), or using a bifunctor IO that includes an extra type parameter for the error type, i.e. BIO[E, A] instead of using EitherT[IO, E, A] (a WIP for cats-effect can be found here).

In general, we can think up more performant solutions to our effect type class instances by using more specialized data structures. Monad Transformers are extremely general, which makes them very flexible, but that flexibility may come at a price. One of the great things about mtl is that we don’t have to choose up front, but only at the very end when our program is run. For example, we might choose to use only monad transformers at the begining when developing our application. Then, when we want to scale up, we can move to more performant instances simply by changing a few lines when materializing our programs.

In the long term, I’d like to provide a submodule of cats-mtl that has very specialized and performant data types for every combination of effect type classes. For this purpose, I’ve created the cats-mtl-special library some time ago, but it still remains very much a work in progress. Shoutout also to Jamie Pullar who has been using cats-mtl extensively in production and has also built some more performant instances along with some benchmarks which you can find as part of his talk here.