# Type classes

Type classes are a powerful tool used in functional programming to enable ad-hoc polymorphism, more commonly known as overloading. Where many object-oriented languages leverage subtyping for polymorphic code, functional programming tends towards a combination of parametric polymorphism (think type parameters, like Java generics) and ad-hoc polymorphism.

## Example: collapsing a list

The following code snippets show code that sums a list of integers, concatenates a list of strings, and unions a list of sets.

```
def sumInts(list: List[Int]): Int = list.foldRight(0)(_ + _)
def concatStrings(list: List[String]): String = list.foldRight("")(_ ++ _)
def unionSets[A](list: List[Set[A]]): Set[A] = list.foldRight(Set.empty[A])(_ union _)
```

All of these follow the same pattern: an initial value (0, empty string, empty set) and a combining function
(`+`

, `++`

, `union`

). We’d like to abstract over this so we can write the function once instead of once for every type
so we pull out the necessary pieces into an interface.

```
trait Monoid[A] {
def empty: A
def combine(x: A, y: A): A
}
// Implementation for Int
val intAdditionMonoid: Monoid[Int] = new Monoid[Int] {
def empty: Int = 0
def combine(x: Int, y: Int): Int = x + y
}
```

The name `Monoid`

is taken from abstract algebra which specifies precisely this kind of structure.

We can now write the functions above against this interface.

```
def combineAll[A](list: List[A], m: Monoid[A]): A = list.foldRight(m.empty)(m.combine)
```

## Type classes vs. subtyping

The definition above takes an actual monoid argument instead of doing the usual object-oriented practice of using subtype constraints.

```
// Subtyping
def combineAll[A <: Monoid[A]](list: List[A]): A = ???
```

This has a subtle difference with the earlier explicit example. In order to seed the `foldRight`

with the empty value,
we need to get a hold of it given only the type `A`

. Taking `Monoid[A]`

as an argument gives us this by calling the
appropriate `empty`

method on it. With the subtype example, the `empty`

method would be on a **value** of type
`Monoid[A]`

itself, which we are only getting from the `list`

argument. If `list`

is empty, we have no values to work
with and therefore can’t get the empty value. Not to mention the oddity of getting a constant value from a non-static
object.

For another motivating difference, consider the simple pair type.

```
final case class Pair[A, B](first: A, second: B)
```

Defining a `Monoid[Pair[A, B]]`

depends on the ability to define a `Monoid[A]`

and `Monoid[B]`

, where the definition
is point-wise, i.e. the first element of the first pair combines with the first element of the second pair and the second element of the first pair combines with the second element of the second pair. With subtyping such a constraint would be encoded as something like

```
final case class Pair[A <: Monoid[A], B <: Monoid[B]](first: A, second: B) extends Monoid[Pair[A, B]] {
def empty: Pair[A, B] = ???
def combine(x: Pair[A, B], y: Pair[A, B]): Pair[A, B] = ???
}
```

Not only is the type signature of `Pair`

now messy but it also forces all instances of `Pair`

to have a `Monoid`

instance, whereas `Pair`

should be able to carry any types it wants and if the types happens to have a
`Monoid`

instance then so would it. We could try bubbling down the constraint into the methods themselves.

```
final case class Pair[A, B](first: A, second: B) extends Monoid[Pair[A, B]] {
def empty(implicit eva: A <:< Monoid[A], evb: B <:< Monoid[B]): Pair[A, B] = ???
def combine(x: Pair[A, B], y: Pair[A, B])(implicit eva: A <:< Monoid[A], evb: B <:< Monoid[B]): Pair[A, B] = ???
}
// error: class Pair needs to be abstract, since:
// it has 2 unimplemented members.
// /** As seen from class Pair, the missing signatures are as follows.
// * For convenience, these are usable as stub implementations.
// */
// def combine(x: Pair[A,B],y: Pair[A,B]): Pair[A,B] = ???
// def empty: Pair[A,B] = ???
//
// final case class Pair[A, B](first: A, second: B) extends Monoid[Pair[A, B]] {
// ^
```

But now these don’t conform to the interface of `Monoid`

due to the implicit constraints.

### Implicit derivation

Note that a `Monoid[Pair[A, B]]`

is derivable given `Monoid[A]`

and `Monoid[B]`

:

```
final case class Pair[A, B](first: A, second: B)
def deriveMonoidPair[A, B](A: Monoid[A], B: Monoid[B]): Monoid[Pair[A, B]] =
new Monoid[Pair[A, B]] {
def empty: Pair[A, B] = Pair(A.empty, B.empty)
def combine(x: Pair[A, B], y: Pair[A, B]): Pair[A, B] =
Pair(A.combine(x.first, y.first), B.combine(x.second, y.second))
}
```

One of the most powerful features of type classes is the ability to do this kind of derivation automatically. We can do this through Scala’s implicit mechanism.

```
import cats.Monoid
object Demo {
final case class Pair[A, B](first: A, second: B)
object Pair {
implicit def tuple2Instance[A, B](implicit A: Monoid[A], B: Monoid[B]): Monoid[Pair[A, B]] =
new Monoid[Pair[A, B]] {
def empty: Pair[A, B] = Pair(A.empty, B.empty)
def combine(x: Pair[A, B], y: Pair[A, B]): Pair[A, B] =
Pair(A.combine(x.first, y.first), B.combine(x.second, y.second))
}
}
}
```

We also change any functions that have a `Monoid`

constraint on the type parameter to take the argument implicitly,
and any instances of the type class to be implicit.

```
implicit val intAdditionMonoid: Monoid[Int] = new Monoid[Int] {
def empty: Int = 0
def combine(x: Int, y: Int): Int = x + y
}
def combineAll[A](list: List[A])(implicit A: Monoid[A]): A = list.foldRight(A.empty)(A.combine)
```

Now we can also `combineAll`

a list of `Pair`

s as long as `Pair`

’s type parameters themselves have `Monoid`

instances.

```
implicit val stringMonoid: Monoid[String] = new Monoid[String] {
def empty: String = ""
def combine(x: String, y: String): String = x ++ y
}
```

```
import Demo.{Pair => Paired}
combineAll(List(Paired(1, "hello"), Paired(2, " "), Paired(3, "world")))
// res2: Demo.Pair[Int, String] = Pair(6, "hello world")
```

## A note on syntax

In many cases, including the `combineAll`

function above, the implicit arguments can be written with syntactic sugar.

```
def combineAll[A : Monoid](list: List[A]): A = ???
```

While nicer to read as a user, it comes at a cost for the implementer.

```
import cats.Monoid
// Defined in the standard library, shown for illustration purposes
// Implicitly looks in implicit scope for a value of type `A` and just hands it back
def implicitly[A](implicit ev: A): A = ev
def combineAll[A : Monoid](list: List[A]): A =
list.foldRight(implicitly[Monoid[A]].empty)(implicitly[Monoid[A]].combine)
```

For this reason, many libraries that provide type classes provide a utility method on the companion object of the type
class, usually under the name `apply`

, that skirts the need to call `implicitly`

everywhere.

```
object Monoid {
def apply[A : Monoid]: Monoid[A] = implicitly[Monoid[A]]
}
def combineAll[A : Monoid](list: List[A]): A =
list.foldRight(Monoid[A].empty)(Monoid[A].combine)
```

Cats uses simulacrum for defining type classes which will auto-generate such an `apply`

method.

# Laws

Conceptually, all type classes come with laws. These laws constrain implementations for a given type and can be exploited and used to reason about generic code.

For instance, the `Monoid`

type class requires that
`combine`

be associative and `empty`

be an identity element for `combine`

. That means the following
equalities should hold for any choice of `x`

, `y`

, and `z`

.

```
combine(x, combine(y, z)) = combine(combine(x, y), z)
combine(x, id) = combine(id, x) = x
```

With these laws in place, functions parametrized over a `Monoid`

can leverage them for say, performance
reasons. A function that collapses a `List[A]`

into a single `A`

can do so with `foldLeft`

or
`foldRight`

since `combine`

is assumed to be associative, or it can break apart the list into smaller
lists and collapse in parallel, such as

```
val list = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
val (left, right) = list.splitAt(2)
```

```
// Imagine the following two operations run in parallel
val sumLeft = combineAll(left)
// sumLeft: Int = 3
val sumRight = combineAll(right)
// sumRight: Int = 12
// Now gather the results
val result = Monoid[Int].combine(sumLeft, sumRight)
// result: Int = 15
```

Cats provides laws for type classes via the `kernel-laws`

and `laws`

modules which makes law checking
type class instances easy.

You can find out more about law testing here.

## Type classes in Cats

From cats-infographic by @tpolecat.

## Incomplete type class instances in cats

Originally from @alexknvl

Type | Functor | Apply | Applicative | Monad | MonoidK | ApplicativeError | MonadError | CoflatMap | Comonad |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Id[A] | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ | ✔ | ✔ |

Eval[A] | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ | ✔ | ✔ |

Option[A] | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✗ |

Const[K, A] | ✔ | ✔ (`K:Monoid` ) |
✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ |

Either[E, A] | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✗ | ✗ |

List[A] | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✔ | ✗ |

NonEmptyList[A] | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ | ✔ | ✔ |

Stream[A] | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✔ | ✗ |

Map[K, A] | ✔ | ✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ |

Validated[E, A] | ✔ | ✔ (`E: Semigroup` ) |
✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✔ (`E: Semigroup` ) |
✗ | ✗ | ✗ |

Reader[E, A] | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ |

Writer[E, A] | ✔ | ✔ (`E:Monoid` ) |
✔ | ✔ | ✗ | ✗ | ✗ | ✔ | ✗ |